Unique Morphological Features of Plant: Long bean pods and heart shaped leaves, Pestiness (weedy, hard to control): Somewhat. While the information is prepared with Indiana and other gardeners in the Midwestern U.S. in mind, much is applicable to gardeners around the globe. Southern Catalpa has many interesting features and uses. The only food supply for the Catalpa worm/caterpillar is the leaves of the Catalpa tree. It is two-lipped and the lips are lobed, two lobes above and three below, as is not uncommon with such corollas. Winter buds: No terminal bud, uppermost bud is axillary. [8], It prefers moist soil and full sun. Catalpa is deciduous tree that belongs to the Bignonia family. Catalpa Tree - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. From scale fish to catfish. The simple, heart-shaped leaves are opposite or whorled, 8" to 12" long, short-pointed and softly pubescent beneath. Winter reveals its arching, twisted branches. Ovules numerous. Catalpa also has several medicinal uses. The flower is perfect, possessing both stamens and pistils; nevertheless, the law of elimination is at work and of the five stamens that are expected to be found, three have aborted, ceased to bear anthers and have become filaments simply. Catalpa Trees: Comments, Reference, Facts, Info. Then, too, the flowers refuse to be self-fertilized. Leaf spots are rarely serious so no chemical control is suggested. Catawba's USDA hardiness zones are 5 through 9A, and ​it grows from coast to coast. The only drawback is that its leaves smell acrid when crushed, and the flowers are short-lived. It also multiplies readily from cuttings. Catalpa bignonioides is a species of Catalpa that is native to the southeastern United States in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The general effect of the flower cluster is a pure white, but the individual corolla is spotted with purple and gold, and some of these spots are arranged in lines along a ridge, so as to lead directly to the nectar within. Catalpa is susceptible to verticillium wilt. Europeans first observed the tree growing in the fields of the Cherokee Native American tribes, who called it Catalpa. When caterpillars are numerous, infested trees may be completely defoliated. For one thing, it's strong, extensive root system can prevent soil erosion. Perfect, white, borne in many-flowered thyrsoid panicles, eight to ten inches long. The long, interesting seed pods persist through the winter. The wood is brittle and hard, but does not rot easily; it is used for fence posts and railroad ties. Catulpa Tree similar references: The Southern Catalpa Tree, umbrella catalpa tree, indiana catalpa tree, western catalpa tree, catalpa speciosa tree. The other parent is Chilopsis linearis. It can be made into a tea that is an antidote for snake bites and has also used for a laxative. [4], The flowers are 2.5–4 cm across, trumpet shaped, white with yellow spots inside; they grow in panicles of 20-40. Yellow leaves of 'Aurea' are showiest in the Upper South. Catalpa, Southern (Catalpa bignonioides) A: M: M: Will grow in just about any soil. [4] It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit,[3] as has the gold-leafed variety C. bignonioides 'Aurea'. ), is a dense globe form usually grafted high on Catalpa bignonioides; it grows about 6 feet high, 5 feet wide, and never blooms. Fall color of both species is a mid range yellow and is good during most years. The tree is the sole source of food for the catalpa sphinx moth (Ceratomia catalpae), the leaves being eaten by the caterpillars. The Catawba worm strives on the tree; these worms are great for fish bait. Southern catalpa leaves give of a foul odor when crushed while leaves of the Northern catalpa smell more like normal green vegetation. Thank you for visiting these Catalpa Tree Pictures at Tree-Pictures.com, please come back soon for more great tree pictures! Each flower has its own stamens and its own stigma but the lobes of the stigma remain closed until after the anthers have opened and discharged their pollen; after they have withered and become effete then the stigma opens and invites the wandering bee. They begin to drop early during dry weather in late summer. The catalpa trees have bloomed recently in Christian County, Kentucky. Branchlets forking regularly by pairs, at first green, shaded with purple and slightly hairy, later gray or yellowish brown, finally reddish brown. Catalpa is also known to be a mild narcotic, which is used in curing the “whooping cough. The leaf shape of the catalpa’s foliage bears a great likeness to elephant ears or large hearts. It is closely related to the Northern Catalpa (C. speciosa), and can be distinguished by the flowering panicles, which bear a larger number of smaller flowers, and the slightly slenderer seed capsules. Louisville Plants That Are Most Easily Confused With This One: Royal Paulownia, Tulip Poplar  dr. They secrete nectar, a most unusual characteristic for leaves, by means of groups of tiny glands in the axils of the primary veins. It was a special tree in china because its wood was used to make the bottom of the qin, a traditional Chinese instrument. The tree is fairly free from fungal diseases and has few insect enemies.[4]. The Chinese catalpa is a little squatter than the southern catalpa, growing to 20-30 feet. C. bignonioides 'Purpurea', has also achieved the award[7] (confirmed 2017). It is found in USDA Zones 4-8, whereas the southern catalpa prefers Zones 5-9. [9] These caterpillars have a longstanding ecological relationship with the tree, and may defoliate a tree three or more times in a summer without killing it. The genus was common in Europe during the Tertiary period and its fossil remains have been discovered in the Miocene rocks of the Yellowstone River. The flowers grow in clusters and have red and yellow stripes. The large leaves make for a great shade tree. Finally, fibers from the fruit of the plant can be used to make ropes. The nectar in turn attracted a greater number of bodyguard ants Forelius pruinosus to the damaged leaves, thus giving added protection to the whole plant. The cross was done by a Russian in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Seeds an inch long, one-fourth of an inch wide, silvery gray, winged on each side and ends of wings fringed. It is a fast growing tree which prefers moist, well drained, alkaline soil, but can tolerate a range of soil types (this is why it could be, to some, considered a weedy plant). Catalpa is also known to be a mild narcotic, which is used in curing the “whooping cough. Leaves: Opposite, or in threes, simple, six to ten inches long, four to five broad. Commonly called the Catawba or Indian Bean Tree, this southern US native is an occasional escape from cultivation. The medium sized, flowering deciduous tree Catalpa bignonioides is a relatively easily grown shade tree that prefers moderate soils but is tolerant of both wet and dry conditions.It prefers being grown in full sun to part shade and has an irregular shape once grown. It is native to a relatively small area extending from central Mississippi, Alabama and … The capsule contains numerous flat light brown seeds with two papery wings. The Southern Catalpa is botanically called Catalpa bignonioides. [5] This is an example of a tree exhibiting a symbiotic relationship with nearby insects. It also has larger leaves and its flowers open about two weeks earlier than those of southern catalpa. [4], Despite its southern origins, it has been able to grow almost anywhere in the United States and southernmost Canada, and has become widely naturalized outside its restricted native range. It can be made into a tea that is an antidote for snake bites and has also used for a laxative. It is easily raised from seeds which germinate early in the first season. The bright green leaves appear late and as they are full grown before the flower clusters open, add much to the beauty of the blossoming tree. A full grown Chinese catalpa, down near the Stone Arch Bridge in SE Minneapolis Corolla: Campanulate, tube swollen, slightly oblique, two-lipped, five-lobed, the two lobes above smaller than the three below, imbricate in bud; limb spreading, undulate, when fully expanded is an inch and a half wide and nearly two inches long, white, marked on the inner surface with two rows of yellow blotches and in the throat on the lower lobes with purple spots. When severe, the leaves yellow and fall off. Because the caterpillars are an excellent live bait for fishing, some dedicated anglers plant cat… The leaves get huge, as big as or bigger than a tobacco leaf. They turn dark and fall after the first severe frost. Clusters of dark glands, which secrete nectar are found in the axils of the primary veins. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 18 m (59 ft) high. The tree itself grows extremely fast and tall. In the USA, Catalpa bignonioides is undoubtedly a Southern tree. Catalpa bignonioides is a species of Catalpa that is native to the southeastern United States in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi. There are three common catalpa species—two North American and … The catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) is not native to Iowa. Its value in this respect has long been recognized and it holds an assured place in the parks and gardens of all temperate countries. Phonetic Spelling kah-TAL-pah big-non-ee-OY-deez Description. Family Name (Scientific and Common): Bignoniaceae, Continent of Origin: Northeastern United States, Manner of Culture: Landscape Shrub-Vine-Tree, Stem (or Trunk) Diameter: More Than The Diameter of a Coffee-Mug, Characteristics of Mature (Brownish) Bark: Lines Go Up-Down, Length of Leaf (or Leaflet): Longer Than a Writing Pen, Leaf Arrangement: Whorled (3 or more leaves per node), Patterns of Main-Veins on Leaf (or Leaflet): Pinnate, Leaf Hairiness: Somewhat Hairy (underneath), Change in Color of Foliage in October: Changes to Yellow, Shape of Individual Flower: Radial Symmetry, Size of Individual Flower: Between a Quarter and the Length of a Credit Card, Size of Fruit: Larger than the Length of a Credit Card, Fruit Desirable to Birds or Squirrels: No, Common Name(s): Northern Catalpa, Hardy Catalpa, Western Catalpa, Cigar Tree, and Catawba-Tree. Southern catalpa is also known as "cigar tree" for its sausage-shaped, cylindrical fruits. Southern Catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides) A very showy tree with large creamy flowers and cordate leaves. Northern catalpa is slightly larger and has bigger leaves, flowers and fruit. It is widely planted as an ornamental shade tree because it produces sprays of showy, purple-flecked white, tubular flowers. The fruit is a long, thin bean pod like capsule 20–40 cm long and 8–10 mm diameter; it often stays attached to tree during winter. Stamens: Two, rarely four, inserted near the base of the corolla, introrse, slightly exserted; anthers oblong, two-celled, opening longitudinally; filaments flattened, thread-like. This coarse, large leaved tree spreads 50 feet and tolerates hot, dry weather, but leaves may scorch and some drop from the tree in very dry summers. A sunny exposur… [4], "NatureServe Explorer 2.0 - Catalpa bignonioides, Southern Catalpa", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Catalpa_bignonioides&oldid=982382603, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bark: Light brown tinged with red. The roots are fibrous and branches are brittle, its juices are watery and bitter tasting. Powdery mildew causes a white powdery coating on the leaves. This site is a service of the Consumer Horticulture Program at Purdue University. And the strong wood is used for fence posts and making furniture. The leaves grow three at each node on the twig in a whorled pattern and are a dull shade of green above with a hairy pale underside. Feather-veined, midrib and primary veins prominent. Actually Used As Fish Bait Both trees are fish favorites. They can grow upwards of 70 feet in height, although more realistically, they typically grow to be around 50 feet. A single flower when fully expanded is two inches long and an inch and a half wide. Branches die and eventually the entire tree … [4], The leaves are large and heart shaped, being 20–30 cm long and 15–20 cm broad. [3], It is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15–18 metres (49–59 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) diameter, with brown to gray bark, maturing into hard plates or ridges. Features distinctively large leaves that are up to 12" in length and 4–8" wide, with a somewhat heart or spear shape. Finally, fibers from the fruit of the plant can be used to make ropes. Because of the shape of the leaves, the Southern Catalpa was used for heart illnesses by Native American medicine men. The entire Pink family behave in this way.[4]. This distinctive fruit hangs on the trees all winter. Catalpa, Southern Common Name: Southern Catalpa Catalpa bignonioides Tree Size: Large Leaf Type: Deciduous Comments: Tough tree for open areas away from walkways; catalpa worms are a prized fish bait. Common names include southern catalpa, cigartree, and Indian-bean-tree (or Indian bean tree). It is a larger and narrower tree than the southern catalpa and its pods are longer and stouter. Sterile filaments three, inserted near base of corolla, often rudimentary. Young catalpa trees are beautiful green standouts with giant green leaves that can sometimes be confused with tung trees and royal paulownia in the southern U.S. Catalpa seedlings are somewhat available, but you may have to go out of your region to find the tree. They originate from temperate parts of North America, Caribbean region and eastern Asia. Southern Catalpa has many interesting features and uses. Calyx: Globular and pointed in the bud; finally splitting into two, broadly ovate, entire lobes, green or light purple. For one thing, it's strong, extensive root system can prevent soil erosion. This page was last edited on 7 October 2020, at 19:58. They are filled with numerous, 1" long seeds that are fringed at the ends. However, it can flourish in the North as well, and accordingly its original range is somewhat in doubt. A 2003 study by J. Ness showed that when a hawkmoth caterpillar Ceratomia catalpae started eating the leaves of C. bignonoides, the leaves produced extra nectar. Minute, globular, deep in the bark. After the flowers bloom, long, cylindrical pods filled with small winged seeds form. Pistil: Ovary superior, two-celled; style long, thread-like, with a two-lipped stigma. The short thick trunk supports long and straggling branches which form a broad and irregular head. The hybrid is sterile and at least two crosses exist, 'White Cloud' and 'Pink Dawn'. The large white catalpa flowers are produced in erect, terminal clusters in … In the northern states of the USA, it is a late bloomer, putting forth great panicles of white flowers in June or early in July when the flowers of other trees have mostly faded. The Catalpa Tree consists of many species, two are native to the US. [citation needed], It is widely grown as an ornamental tree. Tree is rather weak wooded and messy. Their leaves may be shaped like delicate hearts and their showy, white blossoms reminiscent of dainty bells, but make no mistake: Catalpa trees (Catalpa spp.) The leaves are cordate and the flowers are white. Fruit: Long slender capsule, nearly cylindrical, two-celled, partition at right angles to the valves. The catalpa tree is an ornamental shade tree that produces dense clusters of white flowers and long seed pods. Common names include southern catalpa, cigartree, and Indian-bean-tree[2] (or Indian bean tree). During the fall season the seed pods of the Catalpa tree hang from the tree with the appearance of brown, one foot long cigars. Their size makes them a prominent feature, as those on a northern catalpa can be a foot in length and as wide as 8 inches; the southern catalpa leaves are slightly smaller. Southern Catalpa is a powerful bloomer with a unique contorted form. The Southern catalpa's leaves are heart-shaped and broad, with a lighter green on the underside. The bean pods look like big cigars, which gives this plant another common name. Nana, or umbrella catalpa (usually sold as Catalpa bungei. Prominent veins are apparent, and they range from 6 to 12 inches in length, with an equally long stem. The catalpa has the distinction of bearing some of the showiest flowers of all the American native trees. It was introduced as an ornamental tree because of its large, showy flowers. Defoliated catalpas produce new leaves readily, but with multiple generations occurring, new foliage may be consumed by subsequent broods. Flowers in spring are quite showy. A symptom of all is brown spots on the leaves. I don't know if the catalpa in these photos is a southern catalpa (Catalpa bigenoides) or a northern catalpa (Catalpa speciosa). The catalpa blooms with a heavy load of flowers in the spring followed by a large number of leaves in the fall. Catalpa bignonioides (Southern Catalpa) is somewhat smaller reaching about 30 to 40 feet tall, leaves are arranged opposite or in whorls (speciosa leaves are opposite), and it is native and has some salt tolerance. The wood is very light and resistant to rotting, which is why it was used a lot for fence posts and railroad ties until metal took over. Catalpa worms are the fish-bait of choice for many anglers here in the south. Downsides to landscaping with this tree is that it can be considered invasive in some circumstances, and it litters the lawn with flowers in the spring, leaves in the fall and seed pods in the winter. These cover the tree so thickly as almost to conceal the full grown leaves. The two North American species, Southern Catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides), and Northern Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) have been widely planted outside their natural ranges as ornamental trees for their showy flowers and attractive shape, or growing habit. Catalpa bignonioides, commonly called Southern catalpa, is a medium-sized, deciduous tree that typically grows to 30-40’ (less frequently to 60’) tall with an irregular, broad-rounded crown. Purpurea has dark purple new growth that later turns green. Southern catalpa is a short-trunked tree with a rounded to irregular form that can reach 30 to 40 feet in height. Outer scales fall when spring growth begins, inner scales enlarge with the growing shoot, become green, hairy and sometimes two inches long. And the strong wood is used for fence posts and making furniture. It is a fast growing tree which prefers moist, well drained, alkaline soil, but can tolerate a range of soil types (this is why it could be, to some, considered a weedy plant). Six to twenty inches long, brown; hangs on the tree all winter, splitting before it falls. Flowers: June, July. It is smaller than its northern cousin with the same large heart shaped leaves. It has large, heart-shaped leaves and large clusters of fragrant, white flowers. A tree of great character.Southern Catalpa is hardy in zones 5 to 9. They come out of the bud involute, purplish, when full grown are bright green, smooth above, pale green, and downy beneath. It is one of two parents of the interspecific hybrid tree × Chitalpa tashkentensis. When bruised they give a disagreeable odor. 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