Bereavement and Mourning (Russian Empire) By Svetlana Malysheva. The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors very unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the municipal duma. Following the Swedish defeat in the Finnish War of 1808–1809 and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on 17 September 1809, the eastern half of Sweden, the area that then became Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as an autonomous grand duchy. [24] To the south-west, Russia attempted to expand at the expense of the Ottoman Empire, using recently acquired Georgia at its base for the Caucasus and Anatolian front. There was an increase of wealth among the few, but along with this a general impoverishment of the mass of the people, and the peculiar institution of the mir—framed on the principle of the community of ownership and occupation of the land--, the effect was not conducive to the growth of individual effort. "Writing the History of the Russian Revolution after the Fall of Communism. Austro-Hungarian Empire (1910): [Show / hide details] Providing information on the administrative division of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the level of the court districts in 1910. When the procession reached the palace, soldiers opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. Since about the same time a process of Russification was being carried out in the same provinces, in all departments of administration, in the higher schools and in the Imperial University of Dorpat, the name of which was altered to Yuriev. As a result, Pan-Slavists were left with a legacy of bitterness against Austria-Hungary and Germany for failing to back Russia. He replaced the old boyar Duma (council of nobles) with a nine-member Senate, in effect a supreme council of state. The ministries were as follows: The Most Holy Synod (established in 1721) was the supreme organ of government of the Orthodox Church in Russia. The Russian Empire’s population was 170 million people of over 100 different ethnic and religious backgrounds. "The economic development of Russia. It was successful for Russia militarily, but fruitless politically. In 1722, he turned his aspirations as first Russian monarch toward increasing Russian influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of the weakened Safavid Persians. This fact made the system especially obnoxious to the bureaucracy, and during the latter years of Alexander II and the reign of Alexander III there was a piecemeal taking back of what had been given. In Ukraine, where the allotments were personal (the mir existing only among state peasants), the state of affairs does not differ for the better, on account of the high redemption taxes. It was only in the steppe governments that the situation was more hopeful. More generally, he finds that the well-being of the Russian people declined during most of the 18th century, but increased slowly from the end of the 18th century to 1914.[64][65]. The millions of rubles of redemption money received from the crown was spent without any real or lasting agricultural improvements having been effected. Most rich families still depended on private tutors. ", Stephen Woodburn, "Reaction Reconsidered: Education and the State in Russia, 1825–1848.". This resulted in a significant weakening of the Crimean Khanate, an Ottoman vassal and long-term Russian adversary. However, at this time, the majority of the population lived in European Russia. They thus tended to ally themselves with the forces of bourgeois liberalism. Conservatism was the reigning ideology for most of the Russian leadership, albeit with some reformist activities from time to time. In 1906, there were governors-general in Finland, Warsaw, Vilna, Kyiv, Moscow, and Riga. Here are some little-known facts about the empire and its most interesting rulers. Despite losing almost all recently consolidated territories in the first year of the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28, Russia managed to bring an end to the war with highly favourable terms with the Treaty of Turkmenchay, including the official gains of what is now Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iğdır Province. This section needs expansion. The next census to take place in Russia only occurred at the end of 1926, almost three decades later. While revenue rose from 9 million rubles in 1724 to 40 million in 1794, expenses grew more rapidly, reaching 49 million in 1794. The Council of the Empire, or Imperial Council, as reconstituted for this purpose, consisted of 196 members, of whom 98 were nominated by the Emperor, while 98 were elective. The Orthodox hierarchy was suspicious of education – they saw no religious need whatever for literacy. Of these 11 Governorates, 17 oblasts and 1 okrug (Sakhalin) belonged to Asian Russia. Everyone began to mobilize, and Berlin decided to act before the others were ready to fight, first invading Belgium and France in the west, and then Russia in the east. Alongside the local organs of the central government in Russia there are three classes of local elected bodies charged with administrative functions: Since 1870 the municipalities in European Russia have had institutions like those of the zemstvos. Subdivisions of the Russian Empire by largest ethnolinguistic group (1897).svg 4,648 × 2,744; 693 KB. Kennard, Howard Percy, and Netta Peacock, eds. This system – based partly on English, partly on French models – was built up on certain broad principles: the separation of judicial and administrative functions; the independence of the judges and courts; the publicity of trials and oral procedure; and the equality of all classes before the law. With his authority destroyed, Nicholas abdicated on 2 March 1917. This was seen as a political risk in Russia, which similarly suppressed its Muslims in Central Asia and Caucasia. Principalities of Kievan Rus', 1220–1240. The data processing took 8 years using Hollerith card machines. At the highest level, universities were set up on the German model in Kazan, Kharkov, St. Petersburg, Vilna and Dorpat, while the relatively young Imperial Moscow University was expanded. The official vassals of the Russian Empire included the Emirate of Bukhara and Khiva Khanate. Today, Russia's population is approximately 144 million. The Mensheviks believed that the Russian working class was insufficiently developed and that socialism could be achieved only after a period of bourgeois democratic rule. After October 1905, while the imperial style was still "Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias", the fundamental laws were remodeled by removing the word unlimited. The Russian Empire was a natural successor to the Tsardom of Russia. As a result, Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east of the Gulf of Finland, securing access to the sea. [citation needed] According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, which was used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was already a contemporary Russian word for empire. Another significant result of the 1877–78 Russo-Turkish War in Russia's favour was the acquisition from the Ottomans of the provinces of Batum, Ardahan and Kars in Transcaucasia, which were transformed into the militarily administered regions of Batum Oblast and Kars Oblast. See for these periods of extraterritorial control the empire of Japan–Russian Empire relations. Soviet historiography proclaimed that the Russian Empire of the 19th century was characterized by systemic crisis, which impoverished the workers and peasants and culminated in the revolutions of the early 20th century. Food and fuel were in short supply, casualties were increasing, and inflation was mounting. [60] The Emperor was not allowed to ″profess any faith other than the Orthodox″ (Article 62 of the 1906 Fundamental Laws) and was deemed ″the Supreme Defender and Guardian of the dogmas of the predominant Faith and is the Keeper of the purity of the Faith and all good order within the Holy Church″ (Article 64 ex supra). The census project was suggested in 1877 by Pyotr Semenov-Tyan-Shansky, a famous Russian geographer and chief of the Central Statistical Bureau, and was approved by Tsar Nicholas II in 1895. [32] Emancipation brought a supply of free labour to the cities, stimulating industry, and the middle class grew in number and influence. "Historiography and national identity among the Eastern Slavs: towards a new framework. The discontent over the dominant positions of Baltic Germans in Russian politics resulted in Peter I's daughter Elizabeth being put on the Russian throne. Thence it ran to the Curonian Lagoon in the southern Baltic Sea, and thence to the mouth of the Danube, taking a great circular sweep to the west to embrace Poland, and separating Russia from Prussia, Austrian Galicia and Romania. The most important successful reform under Alexander I came in the setting up a national system of education. Elizabeth supported the arts, architecture and the sciences (for example with the foundation of the Moscow University). The western boundary was purely conventional: it crossed the Kola Peninsula from the Varangerfjord to the Gulf of Bothnia. The state peasants were better off, but still, they were emigrating in masses. However, this autonomy was eroded after an uprising in 1831, and was finally abolished in 1867. By contrast in Western Europe, urban men had about a 50 percent literacy rate. (2004) "The Siberian Frontier and Russia's Position in World History,", Hellie, Richard. "The structure of modern Russian history: Toward a dynamic model. Economy. Between 1742 and 1867, the Russian-American Company administered Alaska as a colony. The rates were highest for the nobility (84 to 87 percent), merchants (over 75 percent), then the workers and peasants. In 1897, it had a population of 128,200,000 (1897 year). A majority of the people, 81.6%, belonged to the peasant order, the others were: nobility, 0.6%; clergy, 0.1%; the burghers and merchants, 9.3%; and military, 6.1%. Apart from the Slavs (including the Poles), the Chief of Staff only considered it safe to give arms to Jews (who could not be officers). It was reserved for the third Duma, after the 1905 Revolution, to begin the reversal of this process.[c]. The Imperial Standard of the Tsar, used from 1858 to 1917. ", Neumann, Iver B. Nevertheless, his minister of education, Sergey Uvarov at the university level was able to promote more academic freedom for the faculty, who were under suspicion by reactionary church officials. In these assemblies the wealthiest proprietors sat in person while the lesser proprietors were represented by delegates. In early 1877, Russia intervened on behalf of Serbian and Russian volunteer forces in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78). [43] Economic conditions steadily improved after 1890 thanks to new crops such as sugar beets, and new access to railway transportation. Publication of the results started in 1898 and ended in 1905. This council consists of all the ministers and of the heads of the principal administrations. The traditional school, founded by the historian Simon Dubnow in the late nineteenth century, saw Jews as the preeminent victims of tsarist autocracy, whose treatment of the Jews was marked and defined by governmental antisemitism. The higher forms of education were reserved for a very small elite, with only a few hundred students at the universities by 1825 and 5500 in the secondary schools. Land must thus of necessity be rented from the landlords. December 29, 2017 . The countryside was divided into new provinces and districts. The Russian Empire emerged as one of the great world powers and played a leading role in international events, like the War of 1812 and World War I. Alexander II’s Great Reforms included the peaceful emancipation of approximately 20 million serfs. 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